Medicinal Herb Chart

Over 499 Healing Herbs - Benefits, Side Effects and Uses



Medicinal Herb Chart

Herbs Alphabetical by Common Name

A_ B_ C_ D_ E_ F_ G_ H_ I_ J_ K_ L_ M_ N_ O_ P_ Q_ R_ S_ T_ U_ V_ W_ X_ Y_ Z_

See List Herbs by Botanical Name
Herbs & Properties

Ancient Herbal Traditions Of The Middle East

The Middle East is a region of extreme climates including mountains and arid deserts. It was in Assyria, (now Iraq), that edible and medicinal plants were first brought into cultivation. The mountain uplands are the ancestral home of the rose, Rosa damascena which was cultivated by the Persians long before the Crusaders brought it home to Europe. The olive, fig and myrtle trees grow in the western parts of the region, (Israel,Lebanon, Syria, and southern Turkey. Ancient forests of pine and oak thrived here thousands of years ago where now only remnants of the Cedars groves of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) remain under protected species status. In the dry, inland drought resistant shrubs such as frankincense, Boswellia sacra, myrrh, (Commmiphora myrrha), and gum arabic (Acacia senegal) provided the resins that were the first aromatics. Other important medicinal and food plants originating in the Middle East include oats, barley, flax, sesame, safflower, cabbages,onions, garlic, alfalfa, grapes, almonds, and pomegranates.


  • Acacia Acacia , Acacia senegal : Gum Arabic, Cassie flower, Catechu, Egyptian thorn
    Shrub : Herbalists use acacia gum to bind pills and lozenges and to stabilize emulsions. It is also used in aromatherapy for applying essential oils...
  • Ajwain Seed Ajwain Seed, Trachyspermum ammi : Ajwan, Ajwon
    herbaceous annual : The high concentration of essential oils in ajwain seeds, primarily thymol, give them an aroma and flavor resembling thyme, with a stronger bite...
  • Alfalfa Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. :
    Perennial Plant : Alfalfa is not recommended as primary treatment for any condition, alfalfa is a tonic herb, one that supports health by nourishing the body. Alfalfa is of special interest to women because of its estrogenic activity....
  • Almond Oil Almond Oil, Prunus dulcis :
    Tree : Almond oil is used in skin care and aromatherapy as a carrier oil. Raw almonds are used in facial scrubs, and to make almond flour and almond butter...
  • Asafoetida root Asafoetida root, Ferula asafoetida : devil's dung, food of the gods, hing, narthex
    : According to ayurvedic medicine, asafoetida is a valuable spice and remedy for nervous disorders, colic, bowel spasms, and for spasmodic coughing....
  • Black Seed oil Black Seed oil, Nigella sativa : Kalonjii, Black cumin, black caraway, Roman-coriander, fennel-flower
    Annual Herb : Black cumin seed oil is used as a healthy dietary supplement. Black seed oil contains fatty acids, vitamins and minerals in a unique cell structure. ...
  • Boswellia (Frankincense) Boswellia (Frankincense), Boswellia thurifera : Olibanum, Indian Frankincense, Arabic Frankincense, and Salai guggal
    Resinous tree : Boswellic acids are often combined with glucosamine to relieve the joint pain and inflammation of arthritis...
  • Caraway Seed Caraway Seed, Carum carvi :
    herb : Caraway, source of the crunchy seeds atop dark rye bread, is also one of the best carminative herbs, acting to prevent gas and bloating. Caraway is a good remedy for colds and congestion and helps to relax the muscles that cause coughing spasms....
  • Castor Oil Castor Oil, Ricinus communis :
    Evergreen shrub/annual : Apply castor oil externally for muscle and arthritis pain, bruising and nerve damage. It is well suited to the slow relief of chronic pain and swelling...
  • Cedarwood, Atlas Cedarwood, Atlas, Cedrus atlantica : Atlas cedar
    Evergreen Tree : Cedarwood is known for use in problem skin, as an insect repellent and as an inhalant in respiratory complaints....
  • Cilantro Cilantro, Coriandrum sativum : Chinese parsley, cilantro
    Annual Herb : The leaves of young cilantro plants, which resemble flat-leaved parsley, are staples in Mexican, Chinese and Thai cooking, as are the roots. ...
  • Cumin Cumin, Cuminum cyminum : cummin
    herbaceous annual : Cumin is aromatic, containing up to 4 percent essential oil, warm, spicy and slightly sweet. ...
  • Dill Dill, Anethum graveolens :
    Annual Herb : Mouthwatering dill is carminative, it eases gas pains, bloating and settles the stomach. Both the leaves (dill weed) and seeds are used as a seasoning....
  • Fenugreek Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum :
    Annual Herb : Fenugreek is a medicinal food plant that has the beneficial effect of lowering blood sugar....
  • Garlic Garlic, Allium sativum : Poor Man's Treacle, Bawang, Bauang
    Monocot Perennial : Readily available and inexpensive garlic may be the first line of defense in treating high blood pressure, and dealing with common skin and fungal infections....
  • Grapes Grapes, Vitis vinifera : Grapeseed
    : Grape skins contain the powerful antioxidant compound resveratrol, which has been shown in studies to protect against the effects of a high fat diet, lowering cholesterol that could lead to heart disease....
  • Hemp Oil Hemp Oil, Cannabis sativa :
    Annual Herb : Perhaps the most valued property of hemp (Cannabis sativa) is its percentage of essential fatty acids, which is higher than any other plant in the world. Although Cannabis sativa is illegal in the United States because of the dried leaves intoxica...
  • Henna Henna, Lawsonia inermis : Henna or Hina
    : Henna is a natural hair colorant that seals in oils and tightens the hair cuticle giving your hair a rich, healthy shine....
  • Mustard Mustard, Brassica nigra : Mustard Seed, Brown mustard
    : Pungent mustard oil is antibacterial and antifungal, warm and stimulating....
  • Myrrh Myrrh, Commiphora myrrha :
    tree : One of the three gifts of the Three Magi, Myrrh was used in religious rituals in ancient Egypt, Myrrh's antifungal, antiseptic and astringent help treatment of infections...
  • Oats Oats, Avena sativa L. : Groats. Oatmeal. Oatstraw
    : Oats have always had a reputation as a wholesome, healthy food. The grain is a rich source of complex sugars used by the body. Green oatstraw teas, oatstraw glycerin tincture, and oatmeal poultices and baths...
  • Pomegranate Pomegranate, Punica granatum :
    : Pomegranates are touted for their heart protective antioxidants today, but ancient Egyptians loved them for their ability to kill tapeworms and other parasites. ...
  • Red Poppy Flowers Red Poppy Flowers, Papaver rhoeas : corn poppy, corn rose, field poppy, Flanders poppy
    Perennial wildflower : Red poppies have some folklore medicinal uses as a cough remedy, mild sedative, and non-addictive sleep aid, though not nearly as potent as the related opium poppy, Papaver somniferum....
  • Rose Rose, Rosa spp :
    Perennial : Rose petals suitable for medicinal purposes are deeply rose-colored and fragrant....
  • Safflower Oil Safflower Oil, Carthamus tinctorius :
    Flowering annual : Safflowers are the richest source of CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) . Safflower oil is used for both culinary and body care purposes...
  • Sesame Sesame , Sesamum indicum :
    : Sesame seeds, and sesame seed oil are used for food, and skin care and have a rich tradition of medicinal use....