Properties

Botanical Families

Herbs by Region

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Herbal Traditions of Europe

Arnica montana

The European continent stretches from the Arctic Nordic region south to the hot, dry Mediterranean. The topography ranges from mountainous to the the lowlands of the Netherlands. The herbal traditions of Europe are derived largely from ancient Greek and Romans, who in turn, learned the healing arts from the Egyptians, and so on into the dawn of history.


  • Anise Seed Anise Seed Pimpinella anisum Aniseed
    Annual : Sweet and very aromatic, anise is commonly used to break up congestion, ease coughing and relieve gas and indigestion....
  • Arnica oil Arnica oil Arnica montana leopard's bane,mountain tobacco
    Perennial Herb : One of the best known herbal sports medicines, arnica has dramatic results if used immediately after an injury....
  • Barley Grass Barley Grass Hordeum vulgare
    Grass : Young barley grass is one of a group of 'green' or superfoods, along with wheat grass and blue green algae, that are characterized by their emerald green hues...
  • Bay Laurel Bay Laurel Laurus nobilis Sweet Bay, True Laurel
    Tree : Bay laurel is the source of the ancients' crowns and wreaths for heroes. Bay leaf oil is used to treat arthritic aches and pains, lower back pain, earaches, and sore muscles and sprains....
  • Belladonna Belladonna Atropa belladonna Deadly nightshade
    Perennial sub shrub : Belladonna, or deadly nightshade is no longer used in herbal medicine. Its leaves, roots and black berries are dangerous....
  • Belladonna Belladonna Atropa belladonna Deadly nightshade
    Perennial sub shrub : Belladonna, or deadly nightshade is no longer used in herbal medicine. Its leaves, roots and black berries are dangerous....
  • Borage Seed Oil Borage Seed Oil Borago officinalis
    Annual herb : Borage seed oil is used both as skin treatment and a dietary supplement. Known for its naturally high GLA content, borage is recommended for use in autoimmune conditions....
  • Bugleweed Bugleweed Lycopus spp. Water Horehound, Gypsywort
    Perennial herb : Bugleweed is useful in many heart and vascular system disorders ,hyperthyroid conditions and breast pain. ...
  • Butcher's Broom Butcher's Broom Ruscus aculeatus Jew's Myrtle, Sweet Broom, Scotch Broom
    Evergreen Shrub : Butchers Broom has a long history of use in herbal medicine traditions as a diuretic and blood vessel toner. Broom herbal extracts from the roots of this plant seem to have the ability to strengthen and tone blood vessels...
  • Calendula Calendula Calendula officinalis Pot marigold
    perennial herbaceous plants : Calendula flower oil is one of the first herbs to consider in minor first aid applications. Particularly good treatment for cuts, scrapes, bruises, and minor wounds....
  • Catnip Catnip Nepeta cataria Catmint, Nep,Catnep
    Perennial herb : A harmless high for felines, and beneficial for humans, Catnip leaves contain considerable quantities of vitamins C and E, both excellent antioxidants...
  • Catnip Catnip Nepeta cataria Catmint, Nep,Catnep
    Perennial herb : A harmless high for felines, and beneficial for humans, Catnip leaves contain considerable quantities of vitamins C and E, both excellent antioxidants...
  • Celandine Celandine Chelidonium majus Greater or common celandine
    Biennial Herb : Celandine was used more extensively in the past than it is now, due to concerns about toxicity. Celandine is most often used by modern herbalists for treating gallbladder problems....
  • Chaga Mushroom Chaga Mushroom Inonotus obliquus Cinder conk, Birch mushroom
    Mushroom : Chaga and the similar reishi mushroom both have a reputation as tonics for longevity and health. These mushrooms show great promise for their anti-viral activities...
  • Chamomile Chamomile Matricaria recutita Camomile, Chamomilla, German chamomile
    Annual herb : Chamomile is an excellent remedy for any emotional disorders that involve stress, anxiety, and tension. The apple-like aroma relaxes and calms and the tea is used home remedies....
  • Cornflowers Cornflowers Centaurea cyanus Bachelor?s-button, , bluebottle, bluebonnets
    Self-seeding annuals : The petals of cornflowers are the part used in herbal folklore. According to M. Grieve “ cornflowers are considered to have tonic, stimulant and emmenagogue properties, with action similar to that of Blessed Thistle.&...
  • Evening Primrose Oil Evening Primrose Oil Oenothera biennis Night Willow-herb
    Biennial herbaceous : Both the leaves and the seeds of the evening primrose contain fragrant oil that plays an important part natural health. Evening primrose is a naturally high source of Gamma-linoleic acid...
  • Eyebright Eyebright Euphrasia, various species
    Annual herbaceous flowering plant : Eyebright is often used as an eyewash or in a compress to treat sore, itchy eyes. Eyebright infusions can be taken as a tea, or used as an eyewash or compress...
  • Fennel Seed Fennel Seed Foeniculum vulgare Sweet Fennel, Fenkel
    : Fennel seed is a good herbal remedy for coughs, helps in weight loss, and even tempers the effects of hormonal changes in menopause...
  • Feverfew Feverfew Tanacetum parthenium
    Perennial herb : Feverfew has been used in the treatment of headaches since the first century. It has also been used for inflammation, arthritis, menstrual discomforts, fever, and other aches and pains....
  • Figwort Figwort Scrophularia nodosa Carpenter's square
    Herbaceous perennial : Figwort is used in salves and poultices to soothe inflamed skin in cases of psoriasis and eczema, and to heal burns...
  • Gentian Gentian Gentiana lutea wild gentian ,yellow gentian
    Herbaceous Perennial : Gentian root is the bitter used to make the famous Swedish Bitters tonic. Bitter herbs increase gastric secretions and promote digestion....
  • Goat's Rue Goat's Rue Galega officinalis French lilac, Italian fitch
    Perennial Herb : The medicinal use of Goats rue to treat diabetes, used since the middle ages, has been vindicated by modern science....
  • Hawthorn Berry Hawthorn Berry Crataegus monogyna Mayblossom, whitethorn, Red Haw; Mayflower
    Tree : Hawthorn berries have been used as a heart tonics for thousands of years, and remain one of our most valued herbal heart tonics. ...
  • Henbane Henbane Hyoscyamus niger Hog bean, stinking nightshade
    Annual or Biannual plant : Henbane has been used medicinally since the time of Pliny in ancient Greece, but it is not a herb to be taken for home use....
  • Hops Hops Humulus Lupulus Hops
    Perennial vine : Aged hops are sedatives, fresh hops provide bitters that stimulate digestion; these bitters are also found in the aged herb....
  • Horse Chestnut Horse Chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum Buckeye
    Tree : Horse chestnut is valued in herbal medicine for its ability to tone and strength veins and capillaries...
  • Juniper Berries Juniper Berries Juniperus communis
    tree : Juniper is used as a mild diuretic to treat to treat urinary problems. Juniper detoxifies the system and helps prevent the buildup of uric acid in cases of gout and rheumatoid arthritis....
  • Lady's Mantle Lady's Mantle Alchemilla vulgaris Leontopodium, Stellaria
    Perennial : Lady's Mantle is found both in the wild and in cultivated gardens. It has a time honored traditional use as a woman's healing herb that helps to alleviate painful menstruation...
  • Lavender Lavender Lavandula spp
    Woody Perennial Herb : Lavender can lift your spirits, help you sleep, relieve pain, kill germs, heal burns and rashes, and help keep annoying insects at bay. Lavender oil is also antibacterial and healing to the skin...
  • Linden Linden Tilia spp Lime tree, Basswood
    Deciduous tree : Herbalists recommend linden as a mild tonic for nervousness, insomnia as well as colds and fever. You will find linden often combined with yarrow flowers and sage in cold remedies....
  • Meadowsweet Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria Queen of the Meadow, Bridewort, Quaker Lady
    Perennial herb : Meadowsweet is a mild, but effective anti-inflammatory herb used to treat arthritis and other aches and pains. Meadowsweet leaves and flowers contain salicylates, compounds that are converted by the body to aspirin....
  • Milk Thistle Seed Milk Thistle Seed Silybum marianum L.
    Perennial Herb : Whole seeds of milk thistle or a tincture made from them are now used in the United States as well as Europe, for both protection and regeneration of the liver. ...
  • Mistletoe Mistletoe Viscum coloratum, V. album loranthus,European mistletoe, loranthus, mulberry mistletoe
    Parasitic evergreen shrub : Mistletoe extracts have been extensively studied in Europe as a supplemental treatment in cancer therapy....
  • Oregano Oregano Origanum vulgare Wild Marjoram
    herb : Oregano has a very ancient reputation and has been used in both the kitchen and the sickroom since the time of the ancients. Many would be surprised to learn that oregano is ranked first among the culinary herbs in antioxidant power. Many of the ...
  • Orris Root Orris Root Iris germanica Purple Flag, Bearded Iris
    perennial herb : Dried orris root is used in perfumes and potpourris and sachets as a fixative that enhances other aromas, and in natural products as a base in toothpastes, and cosmetics. ...
  • Parsley Parsley Petroselinum crispum
    : Parsley leaves and root are high in iron content and rich in vitamins A, B, C and trace minerals. Parsley adds color and aids digestion of the foods we eat and acts to prevent gas and bloating...
  • Periwinkle Periwinkle Vinca minor lesser periwinkle, myrtle
    Shrub : The leaves, and seeds of the periwinkle contain vincamine, a precursor to the chemical vinpocetine, which is used as a medicinally to enhance memory naturally while the mind ages....
  • Rosemary Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis
    Woody perennial herb : Amazing, versatile rosemary is valued by cooks, herbalists, aromatherapists, and gardeners alike. Rosemary oil combats mental fatigue, increasing concentration and memory...
  • Saffron Saffron Crocus sativus
    crocus : Saffron, the world's most expensive spice, is derived from the dried stigma of the flower of the saffron crocus. Traditional uses of saffron extend far beyond the kitchen. ...
  • Sage Sage Salvia officinalis
    Perennial Woody Herb : Sage is a well-regarded herb for relieving the hot flashes of menopause. Sage is used both as a culinary herb and medicinal herb. Sage essential oil is used sparely...
  • Savory, Winter, Summer Savory, Winter, Summer Satureja montana
    Perennial Herb : Savory is a carminative herb recommend for gas and digestive upsets, including colic, diarrhea and indigestion....
  • Sea Buckthorn Oil Sea Buckthorn Oil Hippophae rhamnoides Sallow Thorn, Yellow Spine
    deciduous shrub : Sea Buckthorn oil is used in healing skin injuries, burns, wounds, eczema, lesions, sun damaged skin, and abrasions. ...
  • Spearmint Spearmint Mentha spicata Spear mint
    : Spearmint has much the same properties as peppermint, but is milder and good for use with children's complaints. Spearmint tea will relieve hiccough, flatulence as well as indigestion. ...
  • Speedwell Speedwell Veronica officinalis common speedwell ,common gypsyweed, Fluellin, Paul's Betony Groundhele
    Perennial Herb : Speedwell can be used in herbal tea cough remedies as an expectorant, and also has diaphoretic, diuretic and tonic properties....
  • Sweet Woodruff Sweet Woodruff Galium odoratum Wild Baby's Breath
    Perennial herb : Sweet woodruff teas are anti-inflammatory, diuretic and gently sedating. ...
  • Thyme Thyme Thymus vulgaris Common Thyme, Wild Thyme
    Woody Perennial Herb : Thyme is one of the best herbs to use as a cough and cold remedy, addressing all your cold symptoms in a holistic way. Thyme acts to clear the lungs of congestion...
  • Valerian root Valerian root Valeriana officinalis
    Perennial Herb : The Greeks used valerian roots to help them fall asleep, and that use holds up under scientific scrutiny today. For insomnia and nervous anxiety ...
  • Watercress Watercress Nasturtium officinale
    Perennial herb : Watercress is a nutritional culinary food that can also be considered a medicinal plant. Watercress can help reduce the prevalence and duration of colds when included in the diet along with garlic, onions, and cayenne. It is one of the natural food ...
  • Wild Hyacinth Wild Hyacinth Hyacinthus nonscriptus Bluebell
    Perennial Bulb : Bluebells, a classic wildflower native to Great Briton and western Europe is no longer used in herbal medicine, its slight benefits being outweighed by the toxic nature of the bulbs....
  • Witch Hazel Witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana Spotted Alder, Winterbloom, Snapping Hazelnut
    Deciduous shrub : A general and all purpose remedy for abrasions, burns, scalds, insect bites and other inflammatory conditions of the skin....
  • Wormwood Wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.
    Perennial Herb : Wormwood is used today mainly as a bitter tonic, and in natural pest control. As the name implies, wormwood is a powerful worming agent that has been used for hundreds of years to expel tapeworms, threadworms, and especially roundworms from dogs, cats, hu...